Kazakhstan Country Climate and Development Report

"This Country Climate and Development Report (CCDR) identifies ways that Kazakhstan can achieve its development objectives while fostering the transition to a more green, resilient, and inclusive development pathway. It sets out policy reforms and investments needed to build resilience to climate change impacts and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in line with the country’s ambitious climate change objectives".

Publication of the World Bank (2022/11/01)

Petroleum of Kazakhstan

Oil and gas basins of Kazakhstan

Today Kazakhstan is among the top 15 countries in the world when it comes to essential oil reserves, having 3% of the world's total oil reserves. 62% of the country is occupied by oil and gas areas, and there are 172 oil fields, of which more than 80 are under development. 

About 70% of the hydrocarbon reserves are concentrated in western Kazakhstan (Caspian region).

The Atyrau province holds claim to the most significant amount of oil fields, in which more than 75 fields have commercial reserves of 930 million tonnes. The largest field in the province is Tengiz (with 781.1 million tonnes of initial recoverable reserves). The remaining fields in the area have around 150 million tonnes of initial recoverable reserves. More than half of those are concentrated in two fields: Korolevskoye (55.1 million tonnes) and Kenbai (30.9 million tonnes).

Mangystau province's territory has been benefited by the discovery of more than 70 fields with commercial recoverable reserves of 725 million tonnes, and 5.6 million tonnes of condensate.


Crude Petroleum export

In 2023 Kazakhstan aims to increase exports through the Caspian Pipeline Consortium (CPC), which carries about 1 percent of global oil, to 60 million metric tons, energy minister said during the CERAWeek energy conference in Houston. That would be a rise of 15 percent on the 52.2 million metric tons it shipped last year. Next year, it intends to ramp up exports by another 20 percent to 72 million metric tons. If successful, that would amount to a 38 percent rise over two years.

This is possible after an expansion on Kazakhstan’s section of the CPC pipeline, completed in January, increased its capacity from the current 53.7 million metric tons to 72.5 million.

Kazakhstan is heavily dependent on the CPC, which carries four-fifths of its oil exports. Russia is not: Kazakh oil accounted for 88 percent of the CPC’s shipments in 2022.


Destination of Kazakhstan's petroleum

In 2021, Kazakhstan exported $21.6B in Crude Petroleum, making it the 14th largest exporter of Crude Petroleum in the world. 

At the same year, Crude Petroleum was the 1st most exported product in Kazakhstan. 

The main destination of Crude Petroleum exports from Kazakhstan are: Greece ($4.34B), Germany ($3.48B), China ($2.16B), France ($1.88B), and South Korea ($1.58B).

The fastest growing export markets for Crude Petroleum of Kazakhstan between 2020 and 2021 were Germany ($3.36B), Greece ($3.02B), and China ($969M).

Data by

Ecology of Region

Strategy for Kazakhstan's transition to carbon neutrality

The Strategy of achieving carbon neutrality of the Republic of Kazakhstan until 2060 has been approved:

"Our goal is to reduce our carbon footprint and use the benefits of sustainable economic growth, improved public health and reduced climate risks. Net investment in low-carbon technologies is estimated at $610 billion. This will certainly lead to the emergence of new and expanding existing markets and niches for domestic manufacturers, and stimulate the creation of high-skilled jobs,” 

Alibek Kuantyrov, Minister of National Economy of the Republic of Kazakhstan. on Kazakhstan's GHG emitters

27 physical assets in the field of FOSSIL FUEL OPERATIONS have emitted 54 million tons of CO2E in 2021. At the same time, the largest oil producers are concentrated on the eastern and northern shore and shelf of the Caspian Sea.

Learn more at

Negative Impact on environment

A strong anthropogenic impact on all components of the environment causes an active change in the chemical and physicochemical properties of the soil, disrupts the hydrological regime of territories, leads to impoverishment and changes in the species composition, structure and productivity of phytocenoses, a reduction in the spatial distribution and number of animal populations [Alimbaev, Mazhitova, Omarova “Ecology of the Western region in Kazakhstan: state and main directions of improvement” 2020]. 

Social and economic factors of Mangystau

Unemployment in Mangystau.

Mangystau region is inhabited by more than 800,000 people, 91% of the population are Kazakhs.

The growth of the region's population and the urbanization of former shift settlements of oil-producing enterprises are the main triggers of social conflict in the region. The problem is compounded by the expected drop in oil production.

The workers' protests in Zhanaozen in December 2011 were brutally suppressed, in January 2022 the region again became the cause of protests that resulted in the most massive popular unrest in the history of independent Kazakhstan, and entailed numerous victims (Qandy Qantar - Bloody January). 

The problem of unemployment is growing and requires the adoption of large-scale and effective measures as soon as possible.

Fresh water of Mangystau

The available sources of fresh water provide 155 thousand m3 of drinking water per day. In summer, there is a shortage of drinking water – 51 thousand m3 of water per day.

By 2025, the demand for drinking water has already reached 250-260 thousand m3 per day 

KURSIV "Как в Казахстане хотят решить проблему дефицита воды в Мангистауской области к 2025 году".

Agriculture of Mangystau

The area of Mangystau region is 165 642 km2. The overwhelming area of agricultural land belongs to pastures. There is no vegetation on 63.9% of pastures, the quality of 36% is very poor. 

The reason is the arid climate, the lack of fresh water and the low level of introduction of modern agricultural technologies.

Pasture vegetation of Mangystau (official info by 2021)

In 2021 drought has turned into catastrophe for herders in western Kazakhstan. Without grass or fodder, thousands of cows and horses are starving to death.

There are no alternative sources of income-generating activities in these regions. Eighty per cent of the population takes out loans to raise livestock; however, with the death of livestock, the population does not have the opportunity to pay off loans and provide their family with basic needs.

for detailed information see the ReliefWeb Situation Report below:

Mangystau livestock die-off (B. Torekenov 2021)

Environmental factors of Middle Caspian Sea (Mangystau)


Climate of Mangystau - eastern shore of Middle Caspian Sea is arid, continental with cold winters and mild summers. 

The average temperature is −3 °C (27 °F) in January and +26 °C (79 °F) in July. 

The average annual rainfall is 150 millimetres (5.9 in).


The distance from Cape Rakushechny to the mark of -100 meters from today's surface of the Caspian Sea = 47.2 km (bathymetry data by GEBCO).

For comparison, the distance from Akhfenir (El-Ayoun-Sakiya-el-Hamra in Morocco) to -100 meters below the surface of the Atlantic Ocean = 63.5 km (bathymetry data by GEBCO).


The Caspian Sea is classified as brackish, with an average salinity of about one-third of the average sea water. The Mangystau region of the Caspian Sea has a higher salinity value.


Upwelling often occurs in the eastern part of the middle Caspian basin from May to September. The mechanism of upwelling formation in the middle Caspian basin in June and July is north or northeast wind (parallel to the coastline)… the reason of upwelling in July is the prevailing wind from north to south in the middle Caspian basin. According to east and southeast winds in August and September in the eastern part of the middle basin, the upwelling in these months can be due to the effect of the bottom topography.  

Fallah, Mansoury 2021 “Coastal upwelling by wind-driven forcing in the Caspian Sea: A numerical analysis

Upwelling off the eastern shores of the Middle Caspian in August (bathymetry).
Upwelling off the eastern shores of the Middle Caspian in August (top view).


Caspian Sea is eutrophying. The study results reflect the increasing environmental degradation of the Caspian Sea.

Modabberi, Noori “Caspian Sea is eutrophying: the alarming message of satellite data” 2020".

Algal bloom near Akhfennir, Morocco (march 2023)
Algal bloom in Kenderli bay, Kazakhstan (march 2023)

Algal bloom can be seen using Ulyssys Water Quality Viewer script for Sentinel-2 and Sentinel-3 imagery data.

Phytoplankton and biomass

The composition of phytoplankton consisted of 50 species belonging to 4 systematic groups which were registered in the eastern part of the Middle Caspian: 

Cyanophyta (7); 

Bacillariophyta (24); 

Dinoflagellata (13); 

Chlorophyta (6). 

Zooplankton were represented by 9 taxa: 



other groups—2. 

The most important phytoplankton species were Rhizosolenia calcar-avis, Anabaena bergii, Exuviaella cordata, and Binuclearia lauterbornii

The 0–50 m layer in the eastern Middle Caspian was the most productive, where the biomass varied from 98 mg/m3 to 109 mg/m3, consisting largely of diatoms. 

Kurochkina, Nasibulina “Plankton Community Structure and Biomass in the Eastern Middle Caspian Sea” 2022


Various species of coccolithophorids have been found in modern bottom sediments of the Middle and Southern Caspian. They were recorded both in deep-sea depressions and on the eastern shelf of the Caspian Sea. These types of coccolithophorids cannot be attributed to the redeposited ones, since their very good preservation can be observed 

"Mineral composition of bottom sediments and features of modern sedimentation in the Caspian Sea".

Land use

The analysis of land use shows significant areas of unused land (approximately 154 km2), there are also land plots with degraded pastures, and unused plots allocated earlier for civil infrastructure.